Essay: Suicide

Suicide is purposeful deprivation of life, conducted, as a rule, voluntarily and self-sufficiently. There are 83 methods of suicide.

Annually half a million people resort them, among which there are 4 times more men, than women. Those which have not resulted successfully are usually repeated, and in 80% cases are repeated up to the successful realization of the planned suicide.

All the suicides can be divided into two classes – veritable and demonstrative (so-called parasuicide or pseudosuicide). As a rule, pseudosuicide is committed in a state of affect and is not so much an attempt to deprive oneself of life, rather than an attempt to attract the attention of the environment. In the counterbalance of pseudosuicide, veritable suicide is typically a well-planned measure, the main purpose of which is to deprive oneself of life at any cost, despite opinions and reactions of relatives and friends.

In 41% cases the reason of suicide is not clear. However, there are many various reasons of suicide. The basic ones include: problems in private life (unhappy love; death of close relatives or friends; loneliness; problems at work; experience of rape; loss of sense of life); financial problems; problems with health; psychical illnesses (depression, violation of food conduct, bipolar affective disorder, schizophrenia); drugs or psychotropic preparations intake; religious or ideological fanaticism; imitative suicide (after analogical deaths of famous personalities or literary characters), etc.

An obstacle for committing suicide could be antisuicidal factors of personality, devaluating suicide as a method of problems resolution and forming an antisuicidal barrier. As a rule, such factors include unrealized creative plans, awareness of senselessness of suicide, fear to cause heartache of relatives, uncertainty in reliability of the chosen method of suicide, as well as religious and social taboos, related to the problem of death and suicide.

Cloning

Cloning is a method of obtaining several genetically identical organisms by means of agamogenesis (including vegetative reproduction).

Today, cloning of a human is an ethical and scientific problem, consisting of technical feasibility to start forming and growing principally new human creatures, fully copying one or another individual not only externally, but also at the genetic level, and of complete ethical unpreparedness to such a society.

Despite the widespread delusion, a clone is typically not the complete copy of the original, because at cloning only genotype is copied, but not phenotype. Moreover, even developing in identical conditions, the cloned organisms will not be fully identical, because there are casual declinations in the development. It is proved by the example of natural human clones – enzygotic twins, usually growing in very similar conditions.

The technology of human cloning is not fully worked out, forming a row of theoretical and technical questions. However, there already exist several methods, allowing to affirm that the technological issue is mainly solved. The most effective method of cloning is the method of nucleus transfer, applied for successful cloning of Dolly. The most limited and problematic is parthenogenesis method, in which division and growth of unfertilized ovule is induced; even if it is realized, it will only mark successes in cloning female individuals.

Thus, the principal limitation for cloning is impossibility of copying consciousness, which means that cloning is not about complete identity of personalities, but only about conditional identity, the measure and borders of which is yet subject to research. However, there are fears concerning such moments, as large percent of failures in cloning and possibilities of obtaining mutated organisms.

Social limitations also include questions of paternity, maternity, inheritance, marriage and many others. Cloning, as a scientific experiment, makes sense, if it brings a benefit to a concrete individual, but there is no good in applying it universally.

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