Benfari, R. C. (2009). Understanding and changing your management style. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Benfari (2009) states that the effective virtual team leadership has to take into consideration personal traits of the leader and team members because one of the major tasks of an effective leader is to unite virtual team members. Benfari (2009) dates back the beginning of the rapid development of virtual teams to the 1990s.
Bovee, C.L. and Thill, J.V. (2005). Excellence in Business Communication. Prentice Hall.
Bovee and Thill (2005) argue that the contingency leadership theory and the leadership traits theory are very effective in relation to the understanding and interpretation of the virtual team leadership. Bovee and Thill (2005) argue that the development of virtual teams was closely intertwined with the development of new telecommunications and information technologies.
Brown, M.K., Huettner, B. & James-Tanny, C. (2007). Managing virtual teams. Plano, TX: Wordware Publishing, Inc.
The authors stand on the ground that the development of virtual teams and virtual team leadership is backed up with the traditional theoretical views on leadership. In this regard, it is possible to single out the contingency leadership theory and the leadership traits theory as two theories which may be particularly helpful in understanding, interpreting and development of the theoretical framework of virtual team lairdship.
Duarter, D.L. & Snyder, N.T. (2006). Mastering virtual teams: Strategies, tools, and techniques that succeed. (2nd ed.) San Francisco, CA: John Wiley & Sons.
The authors argue that virtual team leaders should be able to respond adequately to the changing organizational environment, including both internal and external changes. In such a context, it is quite logical that Duarter & Snyder (2006) view the contingency leadership theory as a perfect theory to explain and develop the basic characteristics of the virtual team leadership.
Gibson, C.B. & Cohen, S.G. (2003). Virtual teams that work. San Francisco, CA: John Wiley & Sons.
Gibson & Cohen (2003) point out that authoritarian leadership style does not work in the virtual team environment, while in the traditional team environment such leadership style can be effective.
Glen, P. (2008). Leading Geeks: Technology and leadership. In J. Gallos (Ed.), Business Leadership (2nd Edition ed.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Glen (2008) point out that the development of the virtual team leadership heavily depends on the development of positive interpersonal relationships between virtual team members. The effectiveness of the virtual team performance was the dominant variables used in many studies concerning the effectiveness of the virtual team leadership. Glen, 2008) agrees that traditional teams will play insignificant role in the organizational performance and organizational structure of the future. Glen (2008) considers transformational leadership as the most perspective leadership style that can be applied in virtual teams. In fact, the transformation leadership implies that a leader performs the role of a steward to his or her subordinates.
Hart, J.L. (2004). “Organizational Communication in an Age of Globalization: Issues, Reflections. Practices”. Business Communication Quarterly, Vol. 67.
Hart (2004) points out that virtual team members are more inclined to autonomous and independent work, while the ability of the leader to control and guide the work of virtual team members is limited because of the physical remoteness and substantial geographical distance between the leader and virtual team members.
Nemiro, J., et al. (2008). The Handbook of High Performance Virtual Teams. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
According to the authors, the key assumption of the leadership traits theory is that people are born with certain traits and it is one of the primary tasks of the leader to identify these traits and to use the full potential of team members.
Pearce, C. L. & Conger, J. A. (2003). Shared Leadership: Reframing the hows and whys of leadership. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Pearce & Conger (2003) attempt to understand the origin and future prospects of virtual teams at large and virtual team leadership in particular. At the same time, often the traditional theoretical background is used to study the development of virtual team leadership.
Pearce, C.L. (2004). The future of leadership: Combining vertical and shared leadership to transform knowledge work. Academy of Management Executive. 18 (1): 47-57.
Pearce (2004) focus on the development of new, effective approaches to virtual team leadership in order to develop effective virtual team leadership styles, which can replace or back up traditional leadership styles. In such a situation, it is extremely important to take into consideration variables that can affect the virtual team leadership and evaluate the overall effectiveness of virtual team leadership.
Peters, T. J. (2007). In search of excellence: Lessons from America’s best-run companies. New York: Harper & Row.
Peters stands on the ground that the virtual team leadership should take into consideration the interaction between leaders and followers. Unlike traditional teams, virtual teams are more vulnerable to the impact of interaction between leaders and followers, because the role of followers in virtual teams is more significant compared to traditional teams.
Schein, E. H. (2009). Organizational culture and leadership. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Schein (2009) argues that it is more difficult to establish positive interpersonal relationships in virtual teams and leaders may face substantial difficulties and challenges in this regard. The reason is that the virtual team leadership has little opportunities for the establishment of positive interpersonal relationships through interpersonal contacts between the virtual team leader and virtual team members. The emergence of virtual teams revealed the substantial difference of virtual teams from conventional teams, while leaders had to develop effective leadership styles, which could have taken into consideration specificities of the virtual team leadership. As for the job satisfaction, this variable was rather used to back up the effectiveness of the organizational performance and virtual team work performance than an absolutely independent variable.
Thames, B. and D.W. Webster. (2009). Chasing Change. New York: John Wiley and Sons.
Thames and Webster (2009) argue that the contingency leadership theory stands on the ground that the leader’s ability to lead is contingent upon various situation factors.
Volti, R. (2005). Society and Technological Change. New York: Random House.
Volti (2005) stresses the difference between traditional team leadership and virtual team leadership that determined the rise of problems in the development of an effective leadership style. Volti (2005) laid the foundation to the further development of the virtual team leadership, while effective approaches to the virtual team leadership were developed by the late 1990s and early 2000s, when it became obvious that the development of virtual teams is inevitable and virtual team became widely spread, especially due to the rapid development of telecommunications and information technologies which still keep progressing stimulating the ongoing development of virtual teams.