The model is based on the classification of cultural values with the use of four main components: action, process, purpose, and role. In this approach, the preferred form and method of activity, public self-determination, attitudes toward social authorities and regulatory systems are evaluated step by step. The uniqueness of the model lies in the ability to quantify the abovementioned components and make of clear diagrams representing the features of a culture (Stahl & Bjorkman, 2006; Littrell, 2006).
The model includes Personal Cultural Profile (PCP) and Corporate Cultural Scan(CCS), the results of which are further applied for Coaching and Training. The trainings as such should include the following programs (Littrell, 2006):
• Cultural self-identification (interactive training aimed at realizing of the importance of cross-cultural differences, defining one’s own cultural identity and assessing one’s own cross-cultural communication skills);
• Skills of cross-cultural communication (interactive training aimed at identifying cultural differences in a team and improving team performance by creating a model of optimal interaction);
• Cultural integration (interactive workshop aimed at training the management of cultural differences and learning to identify and use the strengths of cultural diversity).
In general, a manager, experiencing cultural shock should stick to a simple strategy: find a mentor, teacher, or curator out of carriers of the given culture; be flexible and tolerant to self and others; abstain from estimates of other cultures and other people; save a sense of humor; and analyze cultural experience.
Today, the growing number of large, medium and small companies actively enter the foreign market, engaging into export activities, licensing, joint venturing, direct investing, management consulting. The number of mergers and acquisitions, strategic alliances and unions is also growing, which is usually preceded by cross-cultural negotiations. There is a growing number of multicultural organizations whose workers must recognize and respect differences, interests of cultural and social groups, exercise political correctness and rejection of discrimination (Anheier & Isar, 2008).
In these circumstances, it is the development of cross-cultural communication of managers that can improve the efficiency of management in a modern society under conditions of globalized economy and internationalization of production. In other words, understanding of the basic cultural principles of foreign partners or employees may be the central link to achieving success.
On the basis of collected and systematized information, since the early 1980’s attempts have been made to classify the types of business cultures, and allocate classification parameters or characteristics. The most widely used classification parameters today are the ones formulated by the Dutch scientist Geert Hofstede (1991), the American scientist Edward Hall (1990) and Dutch scientist Fons Trompenaars (1997). These classification parameters and characteristics (in spite of their methodological incompleteness) form the basis for practical recommendations aimed at preventing cross-cultural conflicts.
For the success of cross-cultural communication and managing multicultural workforce, the preliminary training of staff is crucial. Particular importance is attached to a cross-cultural training carried out on the basis of several approaches at a time, which will allow managers to form practical skills of intercultural interaction and increase the chances of getting a positive outcome of business activities.
However, the development of organization’s abilities consists not only in training employees, but also increasing their competence level. Thus, the collective experience of working together to implement innovations in a different cultural environment is necessary. For this purpose, it is important to gain experience in an experiment on changing the “repertoire” through the reconfiguration and recombination of resources and routines (understanding routines as the standardized means of employees) (Brock & Siscovick, 2007). Such experiments help increase the company’s ability to master new knowledge and transform the organization under the impact of globalization processes, which force to pay more attention to the analysis, understanding and optimization of cultural differences.
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