Essays: Conflict and negotiation process

Traditionally, researches identify 5 styles to provide solving the conflict. The actual using of every style strongly depends on the person involved in the conflict situation. Some people difficultly undergo certain approaches, especially when they are involved in the conflict situations. As we have learned earlier conflict is an essential part of business organizational communication and the same time of social life

The first method of conflict solving is Accommodating. It is strongly connected with people who prefer solving the problems of their opponents, protecting their relationship – either business or personal. Accommodators are the ones who take initiative to their hands and suggest solving of the problems themselves. Another noticeable method is Avoiding. It is manly connected to the people who do not like to find the solution and prefer to avoid complicated situations that may cause conflicts and following solving of them. But if they did not chance to avoid the problem, avoiders show themselves as diplomatic and tactful negotiators. The third method is Collaborating.

It is strongly connected with people, who prefer solving questions and problems and quiet a creative way. They actually enjoy the process itself and probably that is the main reason they involve all the participants of the conflict trying to take into account opinion of everyone. Their main drawback is that they often transform simple and easy solving problems into complex and complicated, just because they enjoy the process of solving a problem. Competing also one of the methods of conflict solving. It is usually preferred by individuals, who start any conflict to achieve certain benefits. It is one of the most typical for business relationship. Competitive participants seem to use some kind of strategy, having clear aim and idea of the process. And the last one is Compromising. People preferring this method are moved by sharp feeling of equity, wanting to achieve impossible – everyone should be happy having equal rights (parts or something other). Such participants are very useful when the time is limited and the solutions should be found very quickly. Still their significant drawback is unnecessary rush in some situations (Shell, 2006).

Negotiation is considered to have to have the lowest outcome to an individual for a negotiated agreement. There exist two bargaining strategies in negotiation – distributive and integrative bargaining. The first one is type of negotiation that seeks to divide up a fixed amount of recourses, so called win-loose situation. The second one is negotiation which is seeking for one or more settlements that will make available creating a win-win solution.

Negotiating as a process traditionally contains 5 phases.

Preparation and planning – is very important in the process of negotiation as all the necessary things should be ready in time. It is significant for the whole strategy.

Definition of ground rules
Clarification and justification
Bargaining and problem solving – there are supposed two variant of situation development: either win-win solution or win-loose solution.
Closure and implementation

What will be also very important to note that gender problemacy do not play any significant role for the process of negotiation. Women negotiate no differently from men, although men apparently negotiate slightly better outcome. But in general there’s no efficient difference between the ways and manners. It is essential that men and women with the same ‘power basis’ have the same styles of negotiation.

It has become quite a suitable practice in business organizational communication to involve so called “third neutral party” into the process of negotiations. They could be either mediators or arbitrators, conciliators or consultants, everything depends on their function and the style of negotiations held. Mediator is neutral third part, facilitating solutions of negotiations using reasonable persuasion and different alternatives and suggestions in order to achieve the desired results of all the parties involved. An Arbitrator is the third party, authorized to dictate an agreement. Conciliator is really trusted third part whose aim to provide informal connection link between the negotiating parties, to ease and comfort their communication. Consultant is an impartial third party, who supposed to have certain skills in conflict management and aimed on facilitating creative problem solution through communication and analysis.

It goes without saying that both methods. The method of conflict and the method of negotiation are closely connected and in some part even supplement each other. Business organizational communication will be impossible without these essential parts of the process, which strongly deal with each other and give reasonable result. It goes withy saying that different situations and different people need different approaches and scientific researches give a number of solutions for the complicated business situations, especially when it comes to the conflict and negotiation process.

References:
1. Shell, R.G. (2006). Bargaining for advantage. New York, NY: Penguin Books.
2. Simon H., March J (1958). Organizations. New York: Wiley
3. Nicotera A. (1995). Conflict and Organizations. Communicative Processes. New York: Albany
4. May, S., Mumby, D. (2005). “Engaging Organizational Communication Theory and Research.” Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
5. Cheney, G., Christensen, L.T., Zorn, T.E., and Ganesh, S. (2004). Organizational Communication in an Age of Globalization: Issues, Reflections, Practices.” Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press.
6. Miller K. Organizational Communication: Approaches and Processes. Wadsworth Publishing; 5th edition 2008

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