Research paper on HISTORY OF ADULT EDUCATION

The first element of the discussion, which is worth of our attention is the level of general education in the United States of America. First, the general pattern of education in the USA is, however, an eight-year elementary school, followed by a four-year high school. This has been called eight—four plan organization. Moreover, it is preceded, in many localities, by nursery schools and kindergartens. Further still, this traditional pattern has been varied in different ways. One plan consists of a six-year elementary school, a three-year junior high school, and a three-year senior high school. There are three levels of general education in the United States of America: program-level, institutional-level, and course-level. Campuses typically use one or more of three basic approaches to assessing the general education program.
The one problem of the educational system is teachers who work in schools. In all countries, main and basic principles of teaching are common. To be a professional and effective teacher he or she should follow some sample principles and rules. For example, Professionalism & ethics, Reflective teaching, Classroom management & organisation, Use of a variety of teaching & learning strategies, Demonstration of teaching skills, Knowledge of students & the notion of developmental learning, Positive classroom environment and other. They should have two basic and important qualities. They are, on my opinion, responsibility and being highly qualified and well educated, as well. In addition, they should be, I think, persuasive and in some case stubborn (in good meaning of this word). Further still, the training experience should be so designed that the student has an opportunity for responsible participation in a wide variety of tasks and relationships.

Talking about the way of learning students (or the education as a whole) people should be careful and accurate, especially when choosing the methods and aims. The level of education in the country is too important factor of success not to pay to it attention. Therefore, I believe government should take in account the type of education in the country in order to make country’s general level higher. According to the one internet source “Classical education” (2010), classical education rests on the concept of the trivium – grammar, logic and rhetoric – not as subjects, although these subjects are studied, but as the structure of every subject and discipline:

• Grammar is the foundation of a subject;
• Logic is the organization of these parts into a whole and an understanding of the relationships among the parts;
• Rhetoric is the ability to apply the foundational knowledge and logical understanding of a subject purposefully and creatively to solve a problem, express an opinion with clarity or create something new.

Strictly talking, contemporary schools do not study the classical-medieval studies’ organisation (it is known as trivium). Definitely, even in the ancient times people knew that every age of a student should filled with different information (different levels of it) according to the age. The youngest people must start with the beginning – the grammar that is a basis of future education. It includes learning to write, to read, to use the words’ parts. Students learn grammar of their language (the language they are talking on), word usage and spelling. The trivium part of learning contains learning about the history events, people, places, and number sense, then music, singing and playing different musical instruments, at last, listening different music genres. Planets, galaxy, physical universe are usually learned in this part of education. Memory is a thing that is relied by this education. Next is the “logic” stage of education. A student becomes an adolescent that gained information about grammar and next he must argument it. Thus, this stage is also called “argumentative”. On this stage student gain new information about different disciplines, as he did on the previous stage, but in the contrast to it, student (having the intellectual capacity) calls those facts into various questions. Students learn how to wrestle facts they have gained with the questions, to analyze and argument facts. However, there are many problems in educational system, because often school program is changed and transformed. There are also less and less adults who visit library’s (see Figure 1).

The last stage is needed to be considered by high schools. It is the last part of trivium – the “rhetorical” part. According to Moore (2003), having the facts at their disposal and being able to wrestle with them, students will now be able to express themselves with increasing grace and at considerable length, both in speech and in writing. They will learn to make coherent literary, historical, mathematical, and scientific arguments. They are ready to tackle difficult readings and problems. It is obvious that in our country people wait that college can challenge students, numbing students’ minds with worksheets.

Rasmussen (1996) stated the quadrivium was the basis of adult education: Arithmetic taught the science of number; Geometry, of form; Music, of sound (and of “harmony” in the most general sense of the word – “number in motion”, as it was often put); Astronomy, of time (of “form in motion”). Moreover, from the very beginning, whether openly acknowledged or carefully alluded to, each of the Quadrivial sciences was accompanied by its complementary metaphysical art. However, this way is not total classical one, because it is rather a 12th-13th centuries’ development, definitely including classical elements. I believe adults need to have an education according to the classical system. Otherwise, how can we make them ready to face with the injustice and real world, to make them ready for decision – making and solving problems, reaching their aims?

Second sub – statement and sub – idea is that the one more problem in the sphere of education are segregation, separation in the urban schools. Jonathan Kozol did his best when wrote the book “The shame of the nation” (see Figure 2). He exposes hypocrisy of our educational policy. As we know, when our country has become independent, our position was “separate but equal”. Raney (1998) notes in the introduction, Kozol notices: “No matter how complex the reasons that have brought us to the point at which we stand, we have, it seems, been traveling a long way to a place of ultimate surrender that does not look very different from the place where some of us began”.

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